From the origins of classical civilization, craftsmen have suffered mistreatment. What has kept them going humanly is belief in their work and their involvement with its materials. Material awareness has taken, over time, the three forms explored in this chapter, a consciousness sustaining work if not enriching the worker.
Perhaps the path we have traced ends logically in the poet William Carlos Williams's declaration in the 1930s that there should be 'no ideas but in things'. The poet was sick of soul talk; better to dwell in 'things touched by the hands during the day.' This has been the craftsman's credo in the past.